There are three elements to the cultural services component of the spaces project. First, we set out to explore the practices people engage in, the places they visit, and how the meanings associated with these two aspects of coastal people’s lives contribute to their identities. This work has involved a series of in-depth interviews and focus groups, alongside a participatory method whereby coastal residents were encouraged to take photographs of meaningful aspects of their lives for discussion.

Second, we set out to establish how important respondents felt the identified cultural services were and how they related to other ecosystem services (e.g. fishery) explored in the SPACES project. We were particularly interested in where benefits were found, and the extent to which respondents grouped, or separated the various benefits. This work involved a series of semistructured interviews with a mapping exercise in which we pulled out four key themes from section one that reflects the cultural services coastal residents identify with.

Finally, we wanted to explore how the strength of peoples attachment to place, relates to their subjective wellbeing, and to two very different cultural services (recreation and traditional values). This data has been collected through semi-structured interviews, as part of the household surveys, and rolled out across over 800 households in 4 communities in both Kenya and Mozambique.

Christina Hicks, Carol Abunge, Kate Brown, Bjorn Schulte-Herbruggen, Amini Tengeza, and Jatieno Nyanpah are the team members involved in this work.