The ESPA Annual Science Conference was held in Nairobi, Kenya from the 17th to the 18th of November. Several members of the SPACES team were in attendance, including Tim Daw, Kate Brown, Caroline Abunge, Salomao Bandeira, Caroline Abunge, Christopher Cheupe, Julio Machele, Vera Julien, Bernard Owuor, Tomas Chaigneau, Kate Brown, and Kairo Gitundu. Tim, Kate, and Caroline also presented their recent papers. The abstracts to their papers and presentations can be found below.
After the conference, part of the SPACES team met with Sam Mwangi to discuss how to make impact with SPACES research. It was an inspiring talk with lots of positive ideas being put forward. The team is currently brainstorming of how to best used Sam’s advice to have positive impact. Here you can see members of the team discussing strategies and who to target with impact “bullets” as Sam put it.
Katrina Brown, University of Exeter
The gendered nature of ecosystem services
This paper discusses the extent to which pour conceptualisation, understanding and empirical analysis of ecosystem services are inherently gendered; in other words, how they might be biased and unbalanced in terms of their appreciation of gender differences. We do this by empirically investigating how women and men are able to benefit from ecosystem services. This highlights the different dimensions of wellbeing affected by ecosystem services, and how these are valued by men and women. But it is not just the division of ecosystem services costs and benefits that is gendered. Using the heuristic device of the ecosystem wellbeing chain proposed by Daw et al. (2016), we show how links in the chain are gendered. We conclude that this gendered understanding of ecosystem services is important not just for how ecosystem services are conceptualised, but also for the development and implementation of sustainable and equitable policy and interventions.
Click the link to view Kate’s presentation, The gendered nature of ecosystem services.
Tim Daw, Stockholm Resilience Centre
Beyond landings—how do fisheries contribute to the lives of the poor?
Fisheries are a link between marine ecosystems to the wellbeing of poor coastal communities. The importance of fisheries for livelihoods, income and nutrition is increasingly recognised, while links to cultural services through place identity, and social interactions have also been explored. Policy discourses in East Africa ocean focus on enhancing production and catch value, by rebuilding stocks, or enhancing fishing technology. Drawing from the transdisciplinary SPACES project, we integrate data on fish stocks, landings, wellbeing, cultural significance, fishing activities, incomes, fish consumption, food security and household livelihoods across contrasting peri-urban and rural sites in Kenya and N. Mozambique. We use the SPACES conceptual framework to understand how marine ecosystems, through fisheries, contribute to the wellbeing of different people on the E. African coast. This detailed mapping of the processes that link fish stocks to the wellbeing of different people idenƟfies that abundance or productivity of a fisheries resource may not be the critical determinant of its contribution to wellbeing, particularly for the poorest. Thus increasing stocks or production is not guaranteed to improve wellbeing, and other innovations or ‘policy levers’ may enhance fisheries’ contribution to the wellbeing of the poor.
Click the link to view Tim’s presentation, Beyond landings – how do fisheries contribute to the live of poor?.
Caroline Abunge, Wildlife Conservation Society, Kenya
The changing contribution of different forms of tourism to local livelihoods during a period of crisis
Nature-based tourism can make important contributions to local livelihoods, alleviating poverty and enhancing wellbeing. It can take many different forms (e.g. luxury high-end tourism or budget backpacker tourism), and these can differ in their poverty impacts. For example, forms of tourism differ in the type and scale of benefits they can provide, the factors determining access to such benefits and their resilience to different forms of shock. These phenomena have been studied in isolation in various places, but not together. In this study, we use data from the ESPA SPACES project to examine the contribution to local livelihoods of two different coral-reef based tourism value chains on the coast of Kenya, both before and during a major tourism crisis triggered by terrorist attacks. One value chain is based on relatively high-value tourism organised through vertically integrated and well capitalised companies that offer complete packages for visitors. The other is based on relatively low-value tourism organised through a large number of small scale local actors that each offer a single service to tourists. Our results demonstrate that while both forms of tourism make important contributions to local livelihoods, the low-value form is more resilient in the face of a tourism crisis.
Click the link to view Caroline’s presentation, The changing contribution of different forms of tourism to local livelihoods during a period of crisis.
Ecosystem services: The past, the pitfalls and the potential for supporting wellbeing of people in the Western Indian Ocean
Powerpoint Presentation About Tim Daw’s keynote presentation at the 10th WIOMSA symposium. What has the science of ecosystems services got to offer the people and policymakers of the WIO region? And what are the opportunities to use this now widespread concept to sustainably support human wellbeing through these turbulent times. I outline key insights, challenges […]
Understanding the disaggregated nature of ecosystem services wellbeing relationship in northern Mozambique
Powerpoint presentation About Dominique Goncalves’ picturesque presentation on the disaggregated nature of ecosystem services wellbeing relationship. She points out that fish and octopus are linked with most basic needs, but people are less satisfied with octopus, and that satisfaction levels vary between the communities. The levels can have to do with gender, tradition, conservation, migration, […]
Artisanal fisheries in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique: rural vs urban fishing centers
Pdf link About This working paper investigates the relationship between gear, catch and income generated by the fishers in different seasons. SPACES researchers collected data using fish catch surveys at landing sites in Pemba town, Vamizi and Lalane. A standard questionnaire was used to collect the effort and location of the fishery. The fishery shows […]
Participatory Modelling of Wellbeing Tradeoffs in Coastal Kenya (P-Mowtick)
Link About P-Mowtick developed a novel approach to explore and understand tradeoffs in wellbeing with regards to a fisheries system on the Kenyan coast. The social and ecological dynamics of this system creates complex tradeoffs for different stakeholders and between different management objectives of food production, conservation and economic profitability as described in the 7 […]
Exploring wellbeing in fishing communities: methods handbook
Link to pdf
Perceptions of degradation of Ecosystem services in a estuarine zone, center of Mozambique – Eunice Ribeiro et al.(1.0 MB)
Link to pdf About Coastal habitats such as mangroves and estuaries provide important ecosystem services for human communities. These habitats are also some of the most heavily exploited by humans and therefore threaten natural systems. Nova Mambone village, established in 1957, is adjacent to an estuary, forming extensive mangrove forests, and the livelihood of the […]
Artisanal fisheries at Pemba Town, Cabo Delgado: Structure, dynamics and contribution of catch for livelihood in a urban environment – Vera Julien et al.(1.8 MB)
Link to pdf About Artisanal fisheries are a key subsistence activity of coastal populations of East Africa. Significant numbers of local communities depend on artisanal fisheries for food and income. Northern Mozambique is changing rapidly due to oil and gas industry and tourism. This presentation looks at the increased pressure on fisheries, other opportunities for […]
A human needs approach to understanding the complex link between coastal services and human wellbeing – Tomas Chaigneau et al.(1.8 MB)
Link to pdf
Elasticity in Ecosystem services: Analysing variable relationships between ecosystems and human wellbeing – Tim Daw et al.(1.9 MB)
Link to pdf About Tim Daw’s presentation on ecosystem service elasticity at WIOMSA. Daw concludes that the relationship between ecosystems and wellbeing is complex and not necessarily positive, and that understanding ecosystem elasticity can inform conservation and poverty alleviation efforts. Ecosystem service elasticity is affected by ecological and social mechanisms, is different for different people, […]
The changing contribution of different forms of tourism to local livelihoods during a period of crisis: a case study of Southern Kenya – Caroline Abunge
Link to pdf About Caroline Abunge’s presenation on the effects of the tourism slump. She concludes that: tourism in the area has suffered due to the terrorism crisis, Kenyan citizens have continued to visit the area – they are not put off – may be more resilient but also have lower impact as they spend […]
Beyond landings – how do fisheries contribute to the lives of the poor? – Tim Daw et al.
Link to pdf About Tim Daw’s presentation on how fisheries contribute to the lives of the poor. Key points: The ecological relationship between stock and flow presents challenges and tradeoffs Fisheries provide different benefits for multidimensional wellbeing Income is important and tied with other benefits but not the only value The value of each benefit, […]
The gendered nature of ecosystem services – Kate Brown et al.
Link to pdf About Kate Brown’s presentation on The gendered nature of ecosystem services. She concludes that: The gendered nature of ecosystem services is not natural – it is socially constructed and relational Using the SPACES chain highlights the different dimensions of this, moving us beyond assigning this to gendered roles, access and entitlements Recognise […]
Coastal ecosystem and poverty alleviation in Cabo Delgado Province of Mozambique – Julio Machele et al.
Link to pdf About Marlino Mubai’s presentation on coastal ecosystems and poverty alleviation. The presentation touches on the environmental conditions in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique, the contribution of ecosystem services to wellbeing, degraded ecosystems, and the natural gas discovery off the Mozambican coast.
The sea belongs to all: Inequality and ecosystem services in coastal Cabo Delgado, Mozambique – Marlino Mubai et al.
Link to pdf About Julio Machele’s presentation on inequality in ecosystem services. He concludes that there is unequal access to coastal ecosystem services in Cabo Delgado, and that these inequalities are based in ethnicity, cultural practices, gender, and wealth.
Understanding the disaggregated nature of ecosystem services well-being relationship in northern Mozambique – Dominque Goncalves
Link to pdf About Dominique Goncalves’ picturesque presentation on the disaggregated nature of ecosystem services wellbeing relationship. She points out that fish and octopus are linked with most basic needs, but people are less satisfied with octopus, and that satisfaction levels vary between the communities. The levels can have to do with gender, tradition, conservation, […]
Applying the ecosystem services concept to poverty alleviation: the need to disaggregate human well-being. Environmental Conservation 2011
Link to pdf (Open Access) About The concept of ecosystem services (ES), the benefits humans derive from ecosystems, is increasingly applied to environmental conservation, human well-being and poverty alleviation, and to inform the development of interventions. Payments for ecosystem services (PES) implicitly recognize the unequal distribution of the costs and benefits of maintaining ES, through […]
Connecting Marine Ecosystem Services to Human Well-being: Insights from Participatory Well-being Assessment in Kenya. AMBIO 2013
Link to pdf (Open Access) About The linkage between ecosystems and human well-being is a focus of the conceptualization of “ecosystem services” as promoted by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. However, the actual nature of connections between ecosystems and the well-being of individuals remains complex and poorly understood. We conducted a series of qualitative focus groups […]
Elasticity in ecosystem services: exploring the variable relationship between ecosystems and human well-being. Ecology and Society 2016
Link to pdf (Open Access) Abstract Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of “ecosystem service elasticity” (ES elasticity) that describes the sensitivity of […]
All information including publications, conference presentations and news items related to tourism data is tagged below.
All information including publications, conference presentations and news items related to wellbeing data is tagged below.
All information including publications, conference presentations and news items related to landings data is tagged below.
What has wellbeing got to do with the price of fish: A focus on fishers’ income might miss opportunities for sustainable poverty alleviation
SPACES research informs a call to consider fisheries benefits to wellbeing beyond income. An income focus can miss non-monetary dimensions of poverty, unequal distributions and whether it is spent and saved to improve people’s quality of life. By Tim Daw and Ida Gabrielsson For the past four years, SPACES has conducted research in coastal communities […]
Exploring wellbeing and ecosystem services at the Resillience for Development Colloquium, Johannesburg
Julio Machele, Marlino Mubai, Dominique Goncales, Tim Daw and Thomas Chagneau represented SPACES at this event, which brought together scientists and practitioners working on complex challenges of sustainable development in the context of complex social and ecological interconnections and change. A session on SPACES results featured: – an introduction and overview of the political and […]
Tourism at the Kisite-Mpunguti Marine National Park 2011-2015
SPACES has been investigating ecosystem services and their contribution to poverty alleviation in Kenya and Mozambique since 2013. One part of this project has looked at tourism in the South Coast region of Kenya. From 2013-2015 Kenya had terrorism related travel advisories. SPACES co-investigator, Chris Sandbrook, analysed tourism data from 2011-2015 to understand how the […]
Connections between Ecosystem Services & Human Wellbeing (video)
In a whiteboard seminar given at the Stockholm Resilience Centre, Tim Daw introduces and unpacks some of the issues and processes that connect ecosystem services to human wellbeing.